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OAU PHY 203 Class Notes with Slides



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OAU PHY 203 Class Notes with Slides

This PDF is the class notes for OAU  PHY 203 during the 2022/2023 session.

It encompasses topics ranging from circuit theory and network theorems to Thevenin's and Norton's theorems, progressing further into AC circuits, transformers, physics of active devices, semiconductors and more.

I will continually update this file as we proceed through the classes. Thank you.



PHY 203 Quiz For OAU



2 votes, 4 avg
Created by Oluwaferanmi Akinyele

PHY 203 Quiz

These are questions based on questions and notes in PHY 203 class (topics from  Element of Circuit Theory to Transformers). I hope you find it helpful in the upcoming test.

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1. What is a loop

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2. Calculate Rth, Vth, and I5

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3. Calculate the equivalent resistance

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4. Circuit elements are connected in parallel when a common ……………. is applied to each elements

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5. Calculate the current flowing in the circuit

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6. In pure inductors, current ……… the voltage by ……

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7. A resistor is regarded as a circuit element which puts energy into a circuit

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8. A capacitor stores charge and hence, electric energy

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9. What are the examples of active elements

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10. An Inductor tend to smooth sudden change in ……………..

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11. A node is a collection point for two or more banches

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12. A capacitor and an Inductor in an AC circuit is referred to as

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13. The Norton’s equivalent circuit contains a Norton equivalent source “I(N)” in parallel with an equivalent resistor R(N)

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14. A Thevenin’s equivalent circuit contains an equivalent source Vth in parallel with an equivalent resistor Rth

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15. Calculate Ia, Ib and Ic

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16. Circuit elements connected in series have common …………….. passing through each element

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17. A mesh is any closed path in a circuit which does not enclose any other closed path inside it

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How many branches, nodes, loop and mesh do we have here?

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19. What is the number of branches, nodes, loops, and meshes?

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20. What are the examples of passive elements?

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21. A capacitor C and an Inductor L store…………….. and ……………….. respectively

Your score is

The average score is 73%


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Secret Study Tips Nobody Told You




Before going into this article, I’d like to say that the inspiration for this article was from a video I watched on YouTube (link to the video below). The girl really talked about some realistic tips that I think will work for people, or if not, you would be able to pick some ideas. I added my points too, based on my experiences in school. If you wanna watch the video, here it is;

But, if you want the full gist, with less time, and less data, then let us dive into the article together. 

Please, remember to leave a comment in the comment section about anything about the post.


Striving for Academic Excellence

So you want to become that “perfect student”, “That student”, or “the one that always gets straight A’s effortlessly.” At this point, you probably know what you need to do. Study more, be organized, use the Pomodoro method, test yourself, and make engaging notes, but nothing ever sticks. 

You try your new study habits and routines for like two days, then crash, and ultimately keep being the same old chaotic, hot, messed version of yourself, while those other perfect, students in your grade keep acing their exams without seeming to break a sweat. But no more. 

In this article, I will go over some top-secret, non-basic study tips and hacks that actually work and will help you finally see improvements in your grades. 

The Common Struggles

Identifying the Three Main Challenges

Here are three main issues that I’ve personally faced, and I feel like the majority of students face when it comes to studying and grades./h

  1. you don’t know how to study. 
  2. you don’t study enough. Or 
  3. you don’t study efficiently. 

Problem One: Finding Effective Study Strategies

For potential problem number one, this is just a situation where you don’t yet know the strategies and techniques that work for you and help you get top grades. Here are the general rules for playing the game of getting good grades.

Prioritize Weightier Exams/Assignments

First, it’s really important to note the weights of the assignments and how important the exams are, in order to prioritize your time on the assignments or exams that are worth the most, and make sure that you put most of your effort into them. 

Some courses are 5 units, some are 2 units, so make sure you prioritize reading the heavier ones for exams first. The 5-unit course carries a greater percentage of your GPA than 2 units. Put more effort into heavy courses!

Understanding Exam Composition

Two is knowing what’s on the exams. Obviously, you won’t know exactly what’s on the exams beforehand usually, but essentially knowing if the majority of the exam will be based on the lectures, slides or on the textbook, or on everything. Also, after you get the feedback for your first few assignments or exams, try to remember what the exam was like and whether it was more from the class lectures or slides or textbooks, and just overall analyze the exam in the first couple of assignments and try to figure out what the teacher wants. Also, if you have quizzes in your class, then I recommend trying to write down any questions you remember after the quizzes and seeing if they pop up on the exam later. There are some lecturers who give you the exact questions they do in class, they give them in your exams, and some use the exact examples in their slides. I’ve seen this a lot with my classes, and that way you can get free points because the same questions popped up on both the class questions and the exam. 

Leveraging Past Exams and Resources

Again, if there is any access to past exams or past papers or practice questions in the textbook, it’s great to use them to review and see where your knowledge gaps are, and also, again, see if any of the questions end up popping up on the exams. 

Download Some OAU 100L Past Questions

Download Last Year’s Past Questions (For OAU Science Part 2 Students)

Concentrate More On Your Lecturer Slides/Class Notes

Next, if there is a note or slide for the class, just straight up use that. I don’t really take notes anywhere else since if the teacher made a study guide or their own notes for the class, it’s very unlikely that they’ll deviate a lot from the notes, and it gives you a great structured format to know what to study and what to prioritize.

If you would like to watch a YouTube video or watch a course online on a particular topic, probably you don’t understand from class or you don’t understand your slides. Do not just watch literally everything in the video, (it’s not the Youtuber that wants to set your exams, lol) You may not need everything for your exams. Watch the video with your school slides or class notes, if there were parts of the video that were clearly just from the slides, then watch that portion of the lecture and take the notes from the lecture for that part well.

Get Freshers Materials (Slides and Class Notes)

Download Material For OAU Science Part 2 Students (Slides and Class Notes)

Embracing Diverse Learning Methods

 A major thing here is once you find something that works for you, even if everyone on the internet says handwriting is terrible and passive reading is bad, honestly, if it works for you, just keep doing it. Don’t let anyone shame your weird study methods or your inefficient study methods. Just find something that works for you and that helps you get the grades that you want.

Problem Two: Time Management and Prioritization

Okay, so problem number two is if you don’t study enough or have enough time.

Balancing Extracurricular Activities

So in this case, I highly recommend cutting some extracurriculars, if you just realize you have way too many.

Tracking and Optimizing Your Study Time

Also, I recommend tracking your time for a week or two and just seeing where all your time goes and also tracking how much time you actually study. Because, for instance, if it turns out you only study five hours a week, then you probably know that something you need to work on is gradually building up how much time you can sit at your desk and study.

Efficient Use of Free Hours

Also, a major tip that really helps a little when you have a million extracurriculars and a million classes, is using your time in school wisely. If you can actually set a goal to use every free minute that you can in school to study. It turns out that there sometimes is actually a lot of free time that just floats around. So use your time wisely at school if you can, and you’ll find that you have a lot more time for studying than you expected during the day in school.

Problem Three: Studying Efficiently

Problem number three is that you don’t study efficiently.

Redefining the Study Hours vs. Success Equation

The most important thing to remember here is that the hours that you spend studying do not really equal success.  Because honestly, when it comes to studying efficiently, you do not have to handwrite your notes for everything. It really is just about playing the game that is getting straight A’s and figuring out what is the bare minimum sometimes that you need to do to get those A’s.

Utilizing Online Resources

Another thing that top students do is that they definitely use outside resources that help them be more efficient and study better.

For example, if you look up certain teacher websites, either your own teacher website or you type in a generic class like AP Chemistry, Weebly, online website, you can usually find a ton of free notes, PDFs, and documents that teachers have uploaded to their websites and actually use those as your notes instead of making them yourself. Definitely don’t be afraid of using the internet to research and find amazing resources. 

Seeking Tutoring and Teacher Guidance

 Of course, if you’re really struggling with a specific topic, absolutely reach out to a tutor. Absolutely see, because usually most universities and schools have free tutoring, so try to see if you can find any student tutors or free tutors.

Absolutely reach out to upper-class men if you can and definitely use your teacher as well as a resource, especially if they’re a really nice teacher. Go to their office hours, visit them at lunch if you can, and definitely use them as well. 

Telling God

If you believe in God, you should always tell Him about everything you do, this includes studying too. Tell Him about your difficulties and how you feel, and pray to Him to raise people who will be your friend, encourage, and guide you through. Tell him that you want favor in your studies, He should tell you what to read, and give you strength when you are tired. Let me tell you, he hears every single word you say, and guess what? He can do them all for you. What makes studying more efficient than this?

Cultivating the Right Mindset

Now, let’s talk about the mindset. Basically, when it comes to the mindset, in my opinion, there are three main pillars of this.

Building Confidence in Your Ability to Improve

Number one is the confidence pillar, which is basically the belief that you can improve. Because if you don’t believe it, you’re honestly deep, deep, deep down going to just think, “I could be doing something fun instead of studying and sitting here, and it’s not going to make a difference.”  So, in my opinion, the way that you develop this confidence or this belief that studying does lead to better grades, or that changing the way you study will lead to better grades, it only comes from the results you get, honestly. I understand some people get it by affirmations and all that, and if that works for you, good for you. But if you are going to really try to improve and learn this subject and just see if you can really try for a semester, for instance. And then, once you actually see tangible results, you’ll start to develop that confidence that you can change, and it’s that belief that you can do it that will keep you resilient and motivated and determined throughout the semester, and not have a mental breakdown every time you don’t get the results you want, or you get a bad grade. This ties into the second pillar of how to have a growth mindset.

Fostering a Growth Mindset

 Number two is the growth mindset, but it’s basically that mindset that every failure is something to learn from and shows you what doesn’t work rather than internalizing that failure and basically concluding that you suck. And again, in my opinion, you’ll only deeply believe that failure is not the end of the world. Once it actually comes true, you actually learn from failures and then you bounce back. That’s why pivoting or changing study techniques, if nothing is working for you is super important, so you don’t keep doing the same thing over and over again and setting yourself up for failure. 

So for instance if handwriting notes it’s just too slow or too boring for you and you can’t concentrate, then definitely try watching videos or making flashcards or mind maps or something completely different and see if that works for you. It’s better that I eventually figure it out in a year, than just continuing to do the same thing that I did for the past several years and continuing to get bad grades. 

The Significance of Valuing Your Grades

The last pillar is simply placing importance on grades. So, obviously, making grades a priority is important for getting good grades because if you don’t care about grades, if you don’t think it’s important, then you’re just not going to prioritize it. You’re not going to study a lot, and you’re not going to get good grades. So, I highly recommend trying to figure out why you want to get good grades and just really thinking about it. It’s probably not going to come to you in like three seconds. It might take several months, even. But just really thinking like why are the grades important to you? Is it for your parents? Do you want to make them proud? Do you want to get a good job in the future? Are you obsessed with a certain subject, and do you really want to learn it and be amazing? And it really doesn’t matter ultimately what that reason is. You don’t have to tell anyone, but the stronger your emotions are about that reason, the better. Because ultimately when you’re sleep-deprived, when you’re tired, it’s remembering that reason that will help you continue pushing through instead of going on your phone or giving up or not caring.

Playing to Your Strengths and Weaknesses

Alright, this part is playing to your strengths and weaknesses. It’s just basically trying to know yourself and how you work. 

Breaking Down Tasks for Success

Break up your assignments or the things that you have to do into little chunks.  So if you get overwhelmed a lot, I also recommend breaking up tasks into little pieces and then, you know that you’ll have a break after you do a certain amount of things. 

Finding Inspiration and a Supportive Community

Surround yourself with an artificial community or a real-life community of peers who are also interested in studying. This is just really helpful when you feel like you completely don’t care about studying or school, or you’re just really lacking motivation. It can be really helpful to find maybe five to ten people on YouTube or on Instagram. It can also be whoever you see as an academic inspiration, and watching them in your free time to kind of reminds you to kind of glorify the process of studying. And that way, you’re getting motivated, and inspired to study even on your breaks, instead of getting completely distracted by a fantasy book or some really intriguing murder mystery show or something like that, that completely distracts your brain from studying and from school. So basically use your study breaks in your Pomodoro sessions or between study sessions to watch, study people, or study inspirations to kind of help focus your brain on studying. 


In conclusion, the path to academic excellence is an exciting journey filled with opportunities for growth and improvement. By addressing common challenges such as effective study methods, time management, and the development of a growth mindset, you can set yourself on the course to achieving your academic goals.

The key lies in self-awareness and adaptability. Recognize your unique learning style and embrace it. Whether you thrive on the pressure of last-minute deadlines or prefer a well-structured study plan, understanding what works best for you is essential. Don’t fear failure; view it as a stepping stone to success. Experiment with various techniques until you discover your personal formula for success.

Placing importance on your grades can be a powerful motivator. Identify your reasons for striving for excellence, be it personal fulfillment, making your family proud, or securing your future. Let these motivations fuel your determination, especially during challenging times.

Finally, remember the value of a supportive community. Surrounding yourself with like-minded individuals who share your commitment to learning can be a wellspring of inspiration. Whether you find study partners online or in real life, a sense of belonging to a community of learners can reignite your motivation during tough moments.

In your journey to academic success, remain undaunted by setbacks or unconventional study habits. While the road may be long, the destination is worth the effort. So, equip yourself with the right strategies, cultivate a resilient mindset, and draw strength from your unique motivations. With these tools in hand, you’re well on your way to becoming the exceptional student you aspire to be. Feel free to share your own insights and experiences in the comment section below. Your feedback is greatly appreciated and can inspire others on their educational journeys.


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JAMB Updates & School News

2023/2024 FUTA JAMB and Departmental Cut-Off Mark



About FUTA

Federal University of Technology Akure, popularly known as FUTA, stands as one of the premier institutions for technology-focused education in Nigeria. Renowned for its academic excellence and competitive admission process, FUTA consistently ranks high among the nation’s universities. In fact, it secured the third spot in Nigeria according to Times Higher Education’s 2024 rating, distinguishing itself as the number one technology institution in the country.  

FUTA has grown tremendously, stretching its academic disciplines and research across eight different schools and over fifty academic departments.

Despite its esteemed status, FUTA remains one of the most affordable universities in Nigeria in terms of tuition fees. This combination of affordability and academic prestige makes it a top choice for aspiring students seeking quality education in various fields.

Today, we aim to provide you with the essential information regarding FUTA’s Cut-Off Mark for the 2023/2024 academic session. Understanding the Cut-Off Mark is crucial for aspiring students as it serves as a fundamental benchmark for admission requirements, helping them adequately prepare for their examinations.

Check the list of all courses in Nigerian Universities

FUTA Cut-Off Mark 2023/2024 | Jamb & Departmental

The Federal University of Technology Akure (FUTA) has officially released its Cut-Off Mark for both general admissions and department-specific requirements for the 2023/2024 academic session.

Prospective students frequently have numerous questions about FUTA’s admission criteria, such as:

  • What is FUTA’s Cut-Off Mark for Medicine and Surgery in the 2023/2024 academic session?
  • What is the JAMB Cut-Off Mark at FUTA?
  • What are FUTA’s General and Departmental Cut-Off Marks for 2023/2024?

If you’re among those with these inquiries, you’ve come to the right place.

But before we delve into the specifics of FUTA’s Cut-Off Marks for the upcoming academic session, let’s clarify what Cut-Off Marks mean and differentiate between the general Cut-Off Mark and the departmental Cut-Off Mark for 2023/2024.

Meaning of Cut-Off Mark

A Cut-Off Mark is a crucial factor in the admission process that not everyone may fully comprehend. Many applicants are uncertain about its meaning, but we are here to clarify that for you.

A Cut-Off Mark is a predetermined score established by an educational institution to determine the eligibility of students for admission into specific departments or programs. The score is usually based on an applicant’s performance in a particular examination. Candidates who exceed the required Cut-Off Mark are given priority in the admission process over those who merely meet the exact Cut-Off Mark.

Meaning of General Cut-Off Mark

The General Cut-Off Mark is the minimum score an aspiring student must achieve to be considered for admission to FUTA. If your score falls below FUTA’s General Cut-Off Mark, you won’t be eligible to register for their Post-UTME, thus missing the opportunity for admission. For instance, if your score is 179 and FUTA’s General Cut-Off Mark is 180, you won’t be able to register for the university’s screening exercise.

Each university has the freedom to set its own General Cut-Off Mark, but it cannot set a Cut-Off Mark lower than the minimum set by the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB).

FUTA General Cut-Off Mark 2023/2024

For the 2023/2024 academic session, the General Cut-Off Mark for all courses at FUTA is set at 180. To be eligible to apply for the post-UTME form and have a chance at admission, every candidate who selected FUTA as their choice in the last JAMB examination is expected to score a minimum of 180. Scoring below 180 will result in automatic disqualification.

Meaning of Departmental Cut-Off Mark

The Departmental Cut-Off Mark refers to the minimum score required for admission to a specific course or department at the university. For instance, FUTA may have a General Cut-Off Mark of 180, but specific departments may have different Departmental Cut-Off Marks. These Departmental Cut-Off Marks are determined based on the level of competitiveness of the course. Each year, the university sets Cut-Off Marks for all courses, though not all departments publicly disclose their specific requirements.

Aspirants and prospective students are advised to check FUTA’s Cut-Off Marks before applying for the Federal University of Technology Akure Post-UTME Screening Form. Here are the full details.

FUTA Departmental Cut-Off Mark 2023/2024

Below are the Departmental Cut-Off Marks for specific courses:

Note: These Cut-Off Marks may vary annually based on the performance of applicants applying for specific courses.

FUTA Departmental Cutoff Marks (Aggregate)















Some Subject Combinations Of Some FUTA Courses

14. Geology: Use of English and any three Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, Biology and Geography. 16. Surveying and Geoinformatics: Use of English, Physics, Mathematics, and any of Chemistry, Geography, Art, Biology and Economics.

 17. Statistics: Use of English, Mathematics and any two of Physics, 

18. Building: Use of English, Physics, Mathematics, and any of Chemistry, Geography, Art, Biology and Economics

 21. Zoology: Use of English, Biology and any two of Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics.

 22. Pure and Applied Mathematics: Use of English, Mathematics, Physics and Biology or Agric Science or Chemistry or Geography.

 44. Architecture: English, Physics, Mathematics, and any of Chemistry, Geography, Art, Biology and Economics.

 45. Quantity Surveying: Use of English, Physics, Mathematics, and any of Chemistry, Geography, Art, Biology and Economics.

 48. Anatomy: English, Mathematics, Biology and Chemistry or Physics.

Check All Courses in FUTA here


FUTA Post-UTME Eligibility

To be eligible for FUTA’s Post-UTME, candidates must meet the following criteria:

  • Score exactly or above the FUTA General Cut-Off Mark which is still 180.
  • Choose the Federal University of Technology, Akure as their first choice of institution during the UTME Registration.
  • Possess a minimum of five O’ level credit passes in relevant subjects, including English Language and Mathematics, from GCE O’Level, WASCE, SSCE, NECO, or approved equivalents, achieved in not more than two sittings.

Candidates who did not initially select the Federal University of Technology, Akure as their first choice but wish to study at FUTA and have scored 180 and above in the 2021 UTME are advised to change their selection to FUTA through the JAMB website.

How to Score Above FUTA Cut-off Mark?

Scoring above the departmental cut-off mark is the key to securing your place at OAU. To achieve this, we recommend focusing on your academic preparation, practicing with FUTA Post UTME Past Questions , and maintaining a strong work ethic.

Click here to get free FUTA Post UTME Past Question.

Additionally, keep a close eye on FUTA’s official announcements for any changes in admission criteria.

In conclusion

FUTA is a highly competitive institution, but meeting the required Cut-Off Mark for a particular course is the first step to gaining admission. To increase your chances of admission, aim not just to meet the Cut-Off Mark but to exceed it.

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About God (Message Review)

Busy Christians



Before we proceed, this is the summary of a message titled “Overcoming Spiritual Hazards of Busy Christians” by Pastor Paul Rika. I listened to it recently, and these are the things I jotted down, and I’d like to share.

Download Audio here

Or Watch the Video here;

Christians who are busy in life, face spiritual hazards. If they do not handle their Christian life well, they lose their soul. They are easily overcome by satan.

1 Kings 20:39 – 40

39 As the king passed by, the prophet called out to him, “Your servant went into the thick of the battle, and someone came to me with a captive and said, ‘Guard this man. If he is missing, it will be your life for his life, or you must pay a talent of silver.’

40 While your servant was busy here and there, the man disappeared.

“That is your sentence,” the king of Israel said. “You have pronounced it yourself.”

The Lord left you in this life, and said “Watch over your soul.” He still left you in your businesses and your studies as a student, but he says “Watch over your soul.” Don’t go too busy that your soul is lost. You are a student, and of course, you must study well but don’t get too busy that your soul is lost.

Are you so busy that prayer life has gone to the loss of your soul? Are you so busy that you can’t read the Bible?

What is the value of the certificate you got, after abandoning Jesus? What is the glory of God in what you have gathered?

A man can destroy his soul by trading it with the things of this world.

More Examples:

Gen 25:27 – 34

27 The boys grew up, and Esau became a skillful hunter, a man of the open country, while Jacob was content to stay at home among the tents. 28 Isaac, who had a taste for wild game, loved Esau, but Rebekah loved Jacob.

29 Once when Jacob was cooking some stew, Esau came in from the open country, famished. 30 He said to Jacob, “Quick, let me have some of that red stew! I’m famished!” (That is why he was also called Edom.

31 Jacob replied, “First sell me your birthright.”

32 “Look, I am about to die,” Esau said. “What good is the birthright to me?”

33 But Jacob said, “Swear to me first.” So he swore an oath to him, selling his birthright to Jacob.

34 Then Jacob gave Esau some bread and some lentil stew. He ate and drank, and then got up and left.

So Esau despised his birthright.

How will you give God away for money or a certificate without bothering? Like Esau gave his birthright for food?

This entitled Jacob at the end of the day, to take the blessings of the firstborn. Do not sell the Lord, for this world. Gen 27:17

Songs of Solomon 1:6

6. Do not stare at me because I am dark, because I am darkened by the sun. My mother’s sons were angry with me and made me take care of the vineyards; my own vineyard I had to neglect.

Don’t get so busy and neglect “your own.”

Do not abandon the truth, because you want to please somebody. This woman was too busy serving others to neglect herself, and her soul. She became black and lost her glory!

Her story depicts the case of people who have given all their time and strength to please others and neglected themselves. 

1 Cor. 9:27.

27 But I discipline my body and bring it into subjection, lest, when I have preached to others, I myself should become disqualified.

You don’t have time, but you are looking shabby and dirty, without care for your soul.

God must be first in your life. It is the first commandment that you love God with all that you have.

In Conclusion: One thing is needful, seek for it. Lk 10:35-45. Martha was being busy, here and there. But you need to seek first the  Kingdom of God.

Prov 8: 14 – 21.

14 Counsel is mine, and sound wisdom;
I am understanding, I have strength.
15 By me kings reign,
And rulers decree justice.
16 By me princes rule, and nobles,
All the judges of the earth.
17 I love those who love me,
And those who seek me diligently will find me.
18 Riches and honor are with me,
Enduring riches and righteousness.
19 My fruit is better than gold, yes, than fine gold,
And my revenue than choice silver.
20 I traverse the way of righteousness,
In the midst of the paths of justice,
21 That I may cause those who love me to inherit wealth,
That I may fill their treasuries.

Who told you that if you seek God, He will not enrich you? Why are you selling your birthright for common man?

Make sure you have God’s time. There’s time for everything, let God’s time be there always. Make time for the service of God. Do not sell your soul.


  • God help me to make time for you
  • Lord Jesus, help me care for my soul.
  • Lord God, recover me, help me, save me. I trust you to give me grace not to neglect my soul.
  • As everyone is busy here and there, help me not to forget my own, my soul.
  • Save me from the world and what is taking my time away from you.
  • Help me manage my time well, but make you first in my life.
  • Save my soul.
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